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EMISSIONS CONTROL SOLUTIONS DOWN TO A SCIENCE


What are the requirements of the ruling?

The affected stationary diesel engines must comply with CO emission limits or must be fitted with emission controls, such as diesel oxidation catalysts, to reduce CO emissions by 70%. The rule also requires the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for stationary non-emergency engines greater than 300 hp with a displacement of less than 30 liters per cylinder. The regulation will be fully implemented by 2013. The regulation includes a number of other provisions, including work practices for engine operators. Stationary engines above 300 hp must also be equipped with closed or open crankcase filtration system in order to reduce metallic HAP emissions. While the regulation does not mandate the emission control technology, the EPA designed the standards based on the capabilities of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC).

Who is affected by the RICE NESHAP ruling?

The NESHAP standards are expressed as volumetric, dry CO concentrations (ppmvd) at 15% O2 (with the exception of standards for rich-burn SI engines, expressed as volumetric concentrations of HCHO at 15% O2). The standards must be met during any operating conditions, except during periods of start-up (of maximum 30 minutes). Emissions are tested at 100% load. Alternative compliance options are available in certain engine categories, expressed as percentage CO or HCHO emission reductions. These reductions can be achieved by retrofitting engines with such controls as oxidation catalysts. The standards for stationary diesel engines are listed in the following table.

This ruling affects existing stationary diesel engines in the following categories:

  • Engines used at "area sources" of air toxics emissions and constructed or reconstructed before June 12, 2006
  • Engines used at "major sources" of air toxics emissions, have a site rating of less than or equal to 500 hp, and constructed or reconstructed before June 12, 2006
  • Engines used at "major sources" of air toxics for non-emergency purposes, have a site rating of greater than 500 hp, and constructed or reconstructed before December 19, 2002

The emission standards apply to engines used for non-emergency purposes.

What levels of emission control must be achieved

For engines at a major source:
SubcategoryNumerical Emission Standards (Except during Start-up)
Non-emergency CI 100=HP=300230 ppmvd CO at 15% O2
Non-emergency CI 30049 ppmvd CO at 15% O2 or 70% CO reduction
Non-Emergency CI >500 HP23 ppmvd CO at 15% O2 or 70% CO reduction

Major sources of air toxins are defined as those that emit or have the potential to emit 10 short tons per year of a single hazardous air pollutant (HAP) or 25 short tons per year of any combination of HAPs.

For engines at an area source:
Subcategory Numerical Emission Standards (Except during Start-up)
Non-Emergency CI 30049 ppmvd CO at 15% O2 or 70% CO reduction
Non-Emergency CI>500 HP23 ppmvd CO at 15% O2 or 70% CO reduction
Area sources are those that are not classified as major sources.

What emission control products are offered to meet RICE NESHAP

Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) are available and recommended by the EPA to meet the emission regulations. In addition, for engines greater than 500 HP a continuous parametric monitoring system (CPMS) must be utilized to measure pressure drop across the catalyst, as the pressure drop across the catalyst must not change by more than 2 inches of water from the pressure drop across the catalyst that was measured during the initial performance test. In addition, temperature must be measured to ensure that the catalyst inlet temperature is between 450F and 1350F.

How can I determine if my engine needs to comply with the ruling

To determine the HAP requirements for your specific engine, you must know the following information: Horsepower, operating hours per year, and if you have an area or major source of emissions. The EPA has provided an applicability flowchart to determine what category your engine falls under: Applicability Flowchart PowerPoint..

Are emergency engines affected by RICE NESHAP

Yes. Emergency engines are affected by the current ruling made by the EPA, but have different requirements than non-emergency engines. For clarification, read the official ruling. How is an Emergency Engine Defined? An emergency engine is one that is operated for emergency purposes only. Examples include stationary engines used to produce power for critical networks or equipment when electric power from the normal power source is interrupted, or a stationary engine used to pump water in the case of a fire or flood. Maintenance checks and readiness testing of the engine is limited to 100 hours per year. The engine is allowed to operate for non-emergency purposes for 50 hours per year, but these 50 hours are counted towards the total 100 hours provided for operation other than true emergencies. The 50 hours per year cannot be used to generate income for a facility, such as supplying power to an electric grid.

What polutants are regulated through RICE NESHAP

HAP which have been measured in emission tests include: 1, 3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, n-hexane, naphthalene, PAH, polycyclic organic matter, styrene, toluene, and xylene. Metallic HAP from diesel fired stationary RICE that have been measured include: Cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, and selenium.

Do i need to do testing on my engine after it is retrofit with an emission control device-1

Non-emergency engines between 300 and 500 HP at either an area or major source: An initial performance test is required to demonstrate that emission standards are achieved using the oxidation catalyst. Non-emergency engines greater than 500 HP located at an area source: Testing depends on the use of your engine. For "Not Limited Use Engines", you must perform an initial performance test and re-test every 8,760 hours of operation or 3 years, whichever comes first. You must also continuously monitor and record the catalyst inlet temperature, and perform monthly monitoring of the pressure drop across the catalyst. For "Limited Use Engines", you must perform an initial performance test and re-test every 8,760 hours of operation or 5 years, whichever comes first. You must also continuously monitor and record the catalyst inlet temperature, and perform monthly monitoring of the pressure drop across the catalyst. For non-emergency engines greater than 500 HP located at a major source: You must perform an initial performance test, and re-test every 8,760 hours of operation or 5 years, whichever comes first. You must also continuously monitor and record the catalyst inlet temperature, and perform monthly monitoring of the pressure drop across the catalyst.

Is a monitoring device required to comply with RICE NESHAP

Catalyst inlet temperature on non-emergency CI RICE engines greater than 500 HP is required to be continuously monitored and recorded. Pressure drop across the catalyst must also be measured on a monthly basis. There are currently no specific performance requirements promulgated by the EPA for the monitoring system, but they are expected in the 40 CFR part 63, subpart ZZZZ ruling expected in August 2010.

Where can i look for basic information on the ruling from the EPA

The EPA RICE NESHAP Face Sheet provides general information on the ruling.

Where is the official ruling from the EPA on RICE NESHAP

The ruling for emission standards can be found on the EPA?s website: EPA RICE NESHAP Ruling. A PDF file of the final ruling is available here: EPA Final Ruling PDF.

NESHAP Emission requirements for Stationary Gas (SI) Engines

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Table 2 NESHAP Emission Requirements for Stationary Gas (SI) Engines
Engine CategoryEmission StandardAlternative CO/HCHO Reduction
Area Sources
4SLB, Non-Emergency > 500 hp47 ppmvd CO93% CO
4SRB, Non-Emergency > 500 hp2.7 ppmvd HCHO76% HCHO
Major Sources
2SLB, Non-Emergency 100 <= hp <= 500225 ppmvd CO -
4SLB, Non-Emergency 100 <= hp <= 50047 ppmvd CO -
4SRB, Non-Emergency 100 <= hp <= 50010.3 ppmvd HCHO -
Landfill/Digester Gas, Non-Emergency 100 <=?hp?<=?500177 ppmvd CO -
4SRB, Non-Emergency > 500 hp350 ppmvd HCHO76% HCHO

What does RICE NESHAP mean?

RICE NESHAP is an acronym for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. In February 2010 the EPA officially made the RICE NESHAP ruling. The rule is intended to reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methanol and other air toxics from several categories of previously unregulated stationary engines.

Background

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a number of rules to control emissions of toxic air pollutants from existing stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE):

  • On June 15, 2004, the EPA issued a rule applicable to several new and existing RICE categories, which included emission standards for certain existing spark ignition (SI) stationary engines.
  • On February 17, 2010, the EPA issued a rule to reduce emissions from existing diesel powered stationary engines (compression ignition, CI, engines).
  • On August 20, 2010, the EPA issued a rule to reduce emissions from existing gas-fired stationary engines (spark ignition, SI, engines).
  • On March 9, 2011, the EPA issued a rule introducing several minor amendments and clarifications to the regulation published on August 20, 2010.

The rules, titled National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines, are intended to reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants?such as formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde, acrolein, methanol and other air toxics?from several categories of previously unregulated stationary engines. The EPA has determined that carbon monoxide (CO) can be often used as an appropriate surrogate for formaldehyde. Since testing for CO emissions has many advantages over testing for emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP), most of the emission standards have been finalized in terms of CO as the only regulated pollutant.

The NESHAP standards discussed below are applicable to existing engines. Separate regulations have been adopted to control emissions from new stationary engines.

The NESHAP regulations for stationary engines are published in Title 40, Part 63, Subpart ZZZZ (63.6580) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

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